هيئة الطاقة الذرية: نمارس جميع الأنشطة «بشفافية تامة»..والوكالة الدولية لم تحقق فى ملفنا النووى

  كتب   أبوالسعود محمد وهشام عمر عبدالحليم ووليد مجدى    ١٥/ ١١/ ٢٠١٠
القللى

أكدت هيئة الطاقة الذرية، أمس، أن مصر تمارس جميع أنشطتها السلمية فى مجال الطاقة الذرية، بما فى ذلك برنامجها السلمى لتوليد الطاقة الكهربائية من المحطات النووية «بشفافية تامة» مع الوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية وشركاء مصر الدوليين، وفيما أكد عدد من خبراء الطاقة الذرية أن برنامج مصر النووى منذ بدايته للأغراض السلمية، وأن المفاعلين النوويين سواء المفاعل الأرجنتينى أو المفاعلات الأخرى، لا تمتلك أى قدرات للاستخدامات النووية العسكرية منذ إنشائها وحتى يومنا هذا. وشددت الهيئة فى بيان صحفى لها أمس، على أن مصر ملتزمة بجميع تعهداتها الدولية وفقا لما صدقت عليه من تعهدات، وذكرت أن التعامل بين مصر والوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية لم يصل إلى درجة التحقيق فى ملف مصر النووى، مثلما يحدث مع إيران وغيرها من الدول الأخرى، وأن الموضوع لم يخرج عن نطاق «التفتيش الروتينى» الذى تجريه الوكالة مع الدول التى وقعت على معاهدة عدم انتشار الأسلحة النووية.

وقال الدكتور محمد منير مجاهد، نائب رئيس هيئة المحطات النووية السابق، إنه من الملاحظ أن هناك عاصفة من الانتقادات والإساءات التى توجه لمصر، كلما بدأت مصر فى الحديث أو العمل على إنشاء محطاتها النووية.

وأضاف أنه منذ قرار تأسيس لجنة الطاقة الذرية بقيادة الرئيس جمال عبدالناصر عام ١٩٥٥، وحتى الآن والبرنامج النووى المصرى سلمى، ويحظى باحترام الوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية، حتى من قبل تولى البرادعى إدارتها.

ولفت مجاهد إلى أن هناك الكثير من الدول المجاورة التى من صالحها بث الأكاذيب عن برنامج مصر النووى، خاصة بعدما رفضت مصر التوقيع على البروتوكول الإضافى لاتفاقية حظر الانتشار النووى.

وأكد الدكتور عزت عبدالعزيز، رئيس هيئة الطاقة الذرية الأسبق، أنه لا توجد فى مصر ذرات من اليورانيوم المخصب التى تصل لمستويات قريبة من مستوى التسليح، مشيرا إلى أن هناك بعض الأشخاص الذين ينتمون لجهات معادية لمصر فى الوكالة يحاولون دائما تعطيل المشروع السلمى النووى لمصر بإنشاء محطة نووية، حيث يختلقون الأكاذيب لتوريط مصر وتشويه سمعتها ووضعها فى مساءلة وعداوة مع الوكالة الدولية.

وأشار إلى أن مصر لا يوجد لديها ما تخفيه فى برنامجها النووى، كما أنها وقعت اتفاقية حظر الانتشار النووى، ملتزمة بهذا الاتفاق، موضحا أنه إذا كانت هناك أثار ليورانيوم مخصب، ربما يعود إلى الأبحاث السلمية التى أجريت من قبل لأغراض سلمية، فمصر لديها مفاعلان سلميان ونسبة تخصيب اليورانيوم فيهما منخفضة جداً لا تصل إلى ٢٠%، وهى نسبة ضعيفة جدا لا تصلح لتصنيع سلاح نووى، فالسلاح النووى يحتاج إلى الوصول بنسبة التخصيب إلى ٨٠%.

absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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* ليس للاستخدام التجاري

* يناقش هذا العرض سوق اليورانيوم العالمي والتغيرات المتوقعة فيه

absalman

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* هذا الملف ليس للاستخدام التجاري

* يحتوي هذا الملف علي ملخصات البحوث التي ألقيت  بمؤتمر  U-2009 بمدينة كي استون بولاية كولورادو الأمريكية.

* تشمل هذا الملف مجموعة كبيرة من خلاصات البحوث القيمة في مجال استكشاف وانتاج وتعدين خامات اليورانيوم في دول عديدة، وهو يمثل نفعا ممتازا لراغبي المعرفة والاطلاع في هذا المجال.

* أرجو أن يكون فيه نفعا 

absalman

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                Summary of worldwide U deposits

by deposit  characteristics and classification

 

Michel CUNEY

UMR G2R-CREGU- CNRS

Vandoeuvre les NANCY

FRANCE

 

* NOt for commercial uses

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THE URANIUM ORE MINERALS

 From "Minerals For Atomic Energy"

By Robert D. Nininger

Lindgren defines an ore mineral as "a mineral which may be used for the extraction of one or more metals." A uranium ore mineral is therefore a mineral possessing such physical and chemical properties and occurring in a deposit in such concentrations that it may be used for the profitable extraction of uranium, either alone or together with one or more other metals. There are only a few of the many uranium minerals that meet these qualifications and still fewer in which uranium is the major constituent. Pitchblende and uraninite contain theoretically up to 85 per cent uranium but actually between 50 and 80 per cent; carnotite, torbernite, tyuyamunite, autunite, uranophane, and brannerite, 45 to 60 per cent. In other minerals, uranium is an important but relatively minor constituent the minerals, davidite, samarskite, and euxenite, for example, contain only 1 to 18 per cent. The majority of uranium-bearing minerals, however, contain uranium in small or trace amounts as an accessory to other major constituents.

The uranium content of a mineral does not of itself, however, determine whether it is a uranium ore mineral. If the uranium is present in a mineral in such complex combinations with other elements that it is too costly to extract, or if the mineral does not occur in sufficient quantities to make extraction worthwhile, that mineral is not a uranium ore mineral. Thus, the definition for an ore mineral, like that for an ore deposit, is dependent upon economics and time upon the value of uranium and the results of future exploration and metallurgical progress. A uranium mineral that is not an ore mineral today may be one tomorrow.

Most of the uranium minerals in pegmatites and placers are refractory; that is, the uranium is present in combinations which are extremely difficult to break down chemically in order to recover the uranium. These minerals also usually occur scattered sparsely throughout the deposit so that recovery difficult and expensive. Therefore, even though some of the individual minerals may contain up to 50 per cent uranium, they are not ore minerals.

The fact that only a few of the numerous uranium minerals qualify as uranium ore minerals and form uranium ore deposits, whereas uranium in small amounts is widely spread throughout the rocks of the earth's crust, adds greatly to the problem of uranium exploration. The uranium prospector gets many "nibbles" but few "bites," and to avoid disillusionment and frustration, as well as waste of time, effort, and money, he must know his business well. This is one of the most important factors in searching for uranium, as it is for other metals-the ability to judge the importance of what is found and whether to discard it or follow it up. In this respect, it is of first importance to become familiar with the uranium ore minerals.

PRIMARY URANIUM ORE MINERALS

Primary uranium minerals have been found most commonly in veins or pegmatites, although in recent years extensive, flat-lying deposits of pitchblende in sedimentary rocks have also been discovered. The refractory primary uranium minerals are also found in placers.

The primary uranium minerals are generally black or dark brown, noticeably heavy, and often have a shiny or pitch-like luster. When they are exposed to weathering at or near the surface, they are sometimes altered to form the bright-colored secondary uranium minerals. At the present time, there are only three known primary uranium ore minerals, and the most important of these, uraninite and pitchblende, are really varieties of the same mineral.

Uraninite (combined UO2and UO3; 50-85 percent U308)1. Uraninite is a naturally occurring uranium oxide with cubic or octahedral crystal form. It has a specific gravity of 8-10.5 (iron = 7.85), a grayish-black color sometimes with a greenish cast and a hardness2 of 5-6, about the same as steel. Its streak3 is black. Its most widespread occurrence is in pegmatites 4, in which it is found in small amounts, throughout the world. However, it is also an important constituent of nearly all important primary deposits, occurring closely associated with its massive variety, pitchblende.

Uraninite is the principal uranium-bearing mineral in two newly developed types of deposits that produced for the first time in 1952: the very low-grade (in uranium) Witwatersrand and Orange Free State gold-bearing conglomerates of the Union of South Africa, and the medium-grade uranium and copper-bearing carbonaceous slates at Rum Jungle, Northern Territory, Australia. In both of these deposits uraninite occurs as finely disseminated crystals, usually invisible to the naked eye. Pitchblende (combined UO2 and U03; 50-80 percent U308) Pitchblende is the massive variety of uraninite, without apparent crystal form, that occurs most abundantly in the rich primary vein deposits of uranium. It is the chief constituent of nearly all high-grade uranium ores and has provided the largest part of all uranium produced throughout the world, forming the principal product of the Shinkolobwe mine, Belgian Congo; the Eldorado mine, Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada; and the mines at Joachimsthal, Czechoslovakia.

Pitchblende is somewhat lighter than uraninite, having a specific gravity of between 6 and 9, but its other properties, with the exception of crystal form, are the same. It occurs as irregular masses often with a rounded, layered, botryoidal structure.

The principal occurrences of pitchblende are in primary (hydrothermal) vein deposits, usually of the mesothermal (medium temperature and pressure) type, in igneous and metamorphic rocks and in flat-lying bedded deposits in sedimentary rocks. Pitchblende is commonly associated with one or more of the primary ore minerals of iron, copper, cobalt, lead, silver, and bismuth; and the presence of these minerals in a mineral deposit is one indication of favorable conditions for pitchblende. It is usually accompanied also by bright colored secondary uranium minerals where subjected to weathering or other alteration. The commonly associated gangue1 minerals are quartz and other silica minerals, carbonates, fluorite, barite, and hydrocarbons. Quartz, calcite, and dolomite are usually the most abundant. Pitchblende, in vein deposits, is most likely to be deposited in existing open spaces in rock formations, rather than by replacement of the rock itself, and the richest deposits occur where large open fractures were available for filling by the mineralizing solutions. There are no important pitchblende replacement deposits like those of copper, lead, zinc, and silver, where rock formations have been substantially replaced by ore through solution of the original constituents and deposition of the ore minerals.

Deposition of pitchblende is usually accompanied by strong alteration of the wall rock along the veins. The presence of hematite (a red iron oxide mineral) extending from the pitchblende a few inches to a few feet into the wall rock is the most characteristic feature. The formation of hematite has occurred in all of the major pitchblende vein deposits and in many of the deposits of minor importance. Other alteration features often associated with pitchblende deposition are the formation of kaolin, chlorite, sericite, and silica minerals in the wall rock.1

In the recently discovered flat-lying deposits of pitchblende in sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones and conglomerates, the pitchblende is deposited between and around the grains of the rock and in available rock openings. The exact mechanics and chemistry of deposition, however, are not as well understood as they are in the case of the vein deposits. The two most important examples are the "copper-uranium" deposits in southern Utah and northern Arizona, in which pitchblende occurs with a variety of secondary uranium and copper minerals and copper and lead sulfides, and the deposits in Big Indian Wash near La Sal, Utah, in the central Colorado Plateau, where the pitchblende is associated with the vanadium mineral, vanoxite, and some secondary minerals, principally carnotite, tyuyamunite, and becquerelite.2

Pitchblende has also been found in smaller amounts disseminated in volcanic rocks in the southwestern United States, in some of the carnotite deposits of the Colorado Plateau, and in the deposits in limestone in the Grants district, New Mexico.

Davidite (rare earth-iron-titanium oxide; 7-10 percent U3O8). Davidite was not considered a significant uranium ore mineral until 1951, when additional exploration at the old Radium Hill mine near Olary, South Australia, an early producer of small quantities of radium, indicated a substantial uranium deposit. After World War II a few tons of davidite were produced from less important deposits near Tete in Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa). Davidite is a dark brown to black mineral with a glassy to submetallic luster. It has about the same hardness as pitchblende (5-6) and is somewhat lighter in weight (specific gravity, 4.5). It occurs most commonly in angular, irregular masses, sometimes with crystal outlines, but never in round, botryoidal shapes like pitchblende. When it is exposed to weathering, a thin yellow-green coating of carnotite or tyuyamunite may form on its surface. This is particularly true at Radium Hill, Australia, and it provides an easy means of tentative identification in the field.

Davidite is deposited in hydrothermal veins, presumably at a higher temperature and pressure than pitchblende. The veins have many of the characteristics of pegmatites. The associated vein minerals are ilmenite, hematite, biotite, mica, quartz, calcite, and pink feldspar. The rocks enclosing the veins at Radium Hill are largely gneisses or schists, with chloritic and sericitic alteration near the veins. At Tete, davidite veins are found in more basic1 rocks like gabbro and anorthosite. Davidite is almost never found as the "pure" mineral, but rather in complex inter-growths with ilmenite which has very similar physical properties and chemical composition. SECONDARY URANIUM ORE MINERALS

The secondary uranium minerals are by far the most spectacular in appearance of the uranium minerals. Instead of the dull black, gray, and brown colors of the primary minerals, they present an array of bright yellow, orange, green, and all of the combinations and in-between shades of those colors. Some of them also have the property of fluorescence under ultraviolet light, resulting in even more brilliant coloration. Rather than being heavy and massive, they occur as earthy or powdery materials or as fine, delicate, needle-like or platy, flake-like crystals. As a group, they are probably more beautiful than the minerals of any other element. This, of course, is an important factor in their recognition in the field, although the inexperienced prospector may often confuse them with other colorful minerals, such as malachite (copper carbonate), limonite (iron hydroxide), and sulfur, to name a few.

The secondary uranium ore minerals have represented only a small proportion of the total world uranium production to date. However, their deposits are more numerous and widespread than those of the primary ore minerals and, as a result of intensive prospecting activity, their importance is steadily increasing. The secondary minerals have two major modes of occurrence:

1. In the weathered or oxidized zones of primary deposits, where they are formed by decomposition of the primary minerals in place.

2. As irregular, flat-lying deposits in sedimentary rocks, primarily sandstones, but also conglomerates, shales, and limestones, formed by precipitation from solutions that may have carried the uranium some distance away from the original source.

The secondary uranium ore minerals also occur frequently along with a large variety of other secondary uranium minerals, mainly the uranium phosphates, carbonates, sulfates, hydrous-oxides and silicates, in what may be considered a third type of secondary mineral deposit. These have been referred to as oxidized secondary deposits or simply as oxidized deposits. Most of these deposits are probably oxidized vein deposits, the complete oxidation of the primary minerals in place making it difficult to prove the original primary character. On the other hand, they may be formed by ground-water solutions that have dissolved uranium from a broad area of slightly mineralized rocks and concentrated it by precipitation in veins and fracture zones. These deposits are numerous throughout arid and semi-arid regions, such as the western and southwestern United States, the west coast of South America, the Mediterranean area, and southern Russia, and, although a few of them have produced ore, they provide most of the troublesome traces or nibbles that often confound uranium prospectors. In some cases they have proved to be the oxidized upper portions of primary deposits from which primary ore has eventually been mined at depth.

The secondary minerals in the weathered zones of primary deposits have at some places contributed significant uranium production, particularly where weathering has been deep, as at Shinkolobwe in the Belgian Congo; at Urgeirica, Portugal; at Marysvale, Utah; and in some of the copper-uranium deposits of the southwestern United States. However, the major significance of such occurrences to the prospector is the indication of the presence of primary mineralization which, at important deposits, produces in the end the preponderance of the uranium. The flat-lying deposits in sedimentary rocks represent the most important occurrence of the secondary minerals, and the most important deposits of this type are the carnotite deposits of the Colorado Plateau area of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, which have been radium, vanadium, and uranium producers since 1898.

Three-quarters of the more than one hundred uranium minerals are secondary minerals, but of these only six may logically be considered ore minerals. Most of the others, many of them extremely rare, occur primarily as the weathering products in the oxidized zones of primary deposits, but some are found associated with the secondary ore minerals in deposits in sedimentary rocks. Unlike the primary uranium ore minerals, the secondary ore minerals seldom occur singly or only two to a deposit. They usually occur together in groups of several of both the ore and non-ore minerals, although, as in the case of the carnotite deposits, one mineral may be predominant. The dominant colors of the secondary uranium ore minerals are yellow and green, orange being confined primarily to the non-ore minerals.

Carnotite (K20*2UO3*V2O5*nH20; 50-55 percent U3O8). Carnotite, a potassium uranium vanadate, is the most important of the secondary uranium ore minerals, having provided possibly 90 percent of the uranium production from secondary deposits. It is a lemon-yellow mineral with an earthy luster, a yellow streak, and a specific gravity of about 4. It occurs most commonly in soft; powdery aggregates of finely crystalline material or in thin films or stains on rocks or other minerals. Its powdery nature gives the impression of even greater softness than its hardness scale rating of 2-3 would indicate. It can be easily scratched with the fingernail. Carnotite is not fluorescent.1

The most noted occurrences of carnotite are in the Colorado Plateau area of the United States, where it was first identified in 1898 and has since provided the major domestic uranium production, on the western edge of the Black Hills, South Dakota, and in the Ferghana basin, U.S.S.R. It occurs in sandstones in flat-lying, irregular, partially bedded ore bodies of from a few tons to a few hundred thousands of tons in size. In the higher-grade deposits (more than one-third of 1 per cent U3O8), the carnotite is present in sufficient quantity to color the rock a bright yellow; but in poorer deposits, particularly below 0.20 per cent U3O8, it is often difficult to distinguish it from the sandstone itself. Its color is also often masked by iron staining or by the dark-colored vanadium minerals usually associated with it. Most carnotite deposits range in grade from 0.10 per cent to 0.50 per cent U3O8.

Although carnotite is the principal mineral in the carnotite deposits, nearly twenty other secondary uranium minerals are found associated with it. The most common of these is the secondary ore mineral, tyuyamunite, described below. All of the other secondary ore minerals, torbernite, autunite, schroeckingerite, and uranophane, have also been found in carnotite deposits. The other associated secondary minerals are the rare oxides, carbonates, arsenates, vanadates, phosphates and silicates. The most common non-uranium minerals found associated with carnotite are the vanadium minerals, corvusite (hydrous-vanadium oxide), hewettite (calcium vanadium oxide), and roscoelite (vanadium mica-silicate). Minerals of the common metals, such as copper, lead, zinc, and manganese, have also been identified in carnotite deposits, as well as pitchblende and uraninite, but their occurrence in most cases is only of academic interest.

One other important association of carnotite should be mentioned, for it has an important bearing on prospecting for these deposits. An evident general affinity of uranium for certain organic materials, which has had some effect on its deposition in almost all types of deposits, is perhaps most clearly displayed in the carnotite deposits of the Colorado Plateau area. In a large number of these deposits, the carnotite is intimately associated with silicified or carbonized wood fossil wood ), and a variety of coal-like and asphaltic materials, all of which are good indicator substances for carnotite. In the Temple Mountain district, Utah, carnotite occurs in sandstones so impregnated with asphaltic material that the deposits are considered a special type and are called uraniferous asphaltite deposits. Elsewhere, fossil wood in the form of logs or accumulations of branches and twigs, locally called trash pockets, is the most common type of associated organic material.

Although occurrences of the type described represent the only ore deposits of carnotite, this mineral is one of the most widespread of the uranium minerals. It is present in varying amounts in nearly all of the other secondary uranium deposits and is the principal mineral in some of the noncommercial oxidized deposits, like those at Jean and Erie near Las Vegas, Nevada, and near San Carlos, Chihuahua, Mexico. Carnotite is found also in small amounts in the oxidized zone of any primary uranium deposit containing even trace amounts of vanadium, for example, the davidite deposits at Tete, Mozambique, and at Radium Hill, South Australia, in the fluorite deposits of the Thomas Range, Utah, and other parts of the southwestern United States, and in places as thin stains and coatings at the outcroppings of the very low-grade, uranium-bearing shale, phosphate, and lignite deposits.

Tyuyamunite (CaO*2UO3 *V2O5*nH20; 48-55 percent U3O8).Tyuyamunite is closely related to carnotite as indicated by the chemical formula, which is the same except that calcium substitutes for the potassium of carnotite. The physical properties of tyuyamunite are the same except for a slightly more greenish color than carnotite and, in some cases, a very weak yellow-green fluorescence not found in carnotite.

Tyuyamunite is found in small amounts in almost any deposit or with any occurrence of carnotite. It is, as one would suspect, more abundant where there is an appreciable amount of calcium, usually in the form of calcite or limestone. Tyuyamunite first obtained importance as an ore mineral because of its occurrence in a deposit in southeastern Turkistan, U.S.S.R., near the town of Tyuya Muyun, for which it was named. It occurs there, and at other localities in the region, associated with other secondary uranium minerals, particularly carnotite and torbernite, in fractures in limestones, dolomites, and shales. It is also an important constituent of the deposits in limestone at Grants, New Mexico, and has been identified in the deposits at Big Indian Wash, Utah.

Torbernite and Meta-torbernite (CuO*2UO3 *P2O5* nH20; 60 percent U3O8) . Torbernite and meta-torbernite are hydrous copper uranium phosphates, the only difference between the two being the number of water molecules present; their physical properties are identical. They have a bright emerald color, a pearly luster, hardness of 2-2 1/2 (about the same as the fingernail), and specific gravity of about 3.5 (a little heavier than quartz). They occur in flat, square, translucent crystals which usually fluoresce with a faint green color.

Torbernite and meta-torbernite are the most common of the secondary uranium minerals that are found associated with primary deposits where oxidation has occurred. They are common in nearly all such deposits except pegmatites, which usually do not contain the necessary copper to form them. They are most noted for their abundance in the oxidized zones at Shinkolobwe, Joachimsthal, and in the copper-uranium deposits of Utah and Arizona. They have provided a substantial uranium production from the Urgeirica mine and nearby deposits in Portugal and from Marysvale, Utah, and they occur in the oxidized zone at Rum Jungle, Northern Territory, Australia. In addition, they occur with the other secondary uranium minerals in the oxidized secondary deposits whenever copper has been present in the depositing solutions or surrounding rocks. They are associated with tyuyamunite in Turkistan and with autunite at Bukhova, Bulgaria, and at Mt. Painter, South Australia. The principal non uranium minerals associated with torbernite are the clay minerals, limonite, quartz, pyrite, and the copper sulfides and carbonates.

Elsewhere in this book these two minerals will be referred to simply as torbernite, although actually the most common of the two is probably Meta-torbernite.

Autunite and Meta-autunite (CaO*2UO3* P2O5* nH2O; 60 percent U308. Reference to the chemical formula will show that these two minerals have the same composition as torbernite, with calcium substituting for copper. Because of this similarity, they are commonly found together, the proportion of torbernite being dependent upon the amount of copper available to the uranium-bearing solutions. In some instances, where copper is completely lacking, only autunite or meta-autunite is formed. Like torbernite and meta-torbernite, autunite and meta-autunite are identical in their physical properties, the distinction being made on the basis of the number of water molecules present. Also, as in the case of torbernite, meta-autunite is probably the most common. For simplification, however, they will be referred to as autunite.

The physical properties of autunite are similar to those of torbernite, except for its color, which is predominantly lemon or sulfur-yellow, although occasionally apple-green, and its brilliant yellow to greenish-yellow fluorescence in ultraviolet light. Autunite has a hardness of 2-2 1/2, is slightly heavier than quartz (specific gravity, 3.1), has a colorless to pale yellow or green streak, and occurs in small square, rectangular, or octagonal flat, translucent crystals or as thin coatings or stains on rock or other mineral surfaces. It is seldom found in large masses but rather as small spots scattered throughout the enclosing rocks. A good autunite exposure is a brilliant sight at night under ultraviolet light, and the inexperienced prospector is apt to overestimate the grade of a deposit seen under those conditions.

Autunite is found in varying amounts in almost all deposits of the other secondary uranium minerals. It is an oxidation product of pitchblende and uraninite and most of the other primary minerals, and may also be derived from some other secondary minerals, like gummite and uranophane. As such it is an important constituent of the oxidized zones at Shinkolobwe and other important primary ore deposits and is a common secondary uranium mineral in most pegmatites. It is present in small amounts in many of the carnotite deposits of the Colorado Plateau area and in larger amounts in the tyuyaunite deposits of Turkistan.

The greatest significance of autunite to the prospector lies in the fact that it is the most common uranium mineral in the oxidized secondary deposits in igneous rocks of arid regions, both those related to primary mineralization and those of unknown origin. It is an important constituent of the oxidized ores at Urgeirica, Portugal, and at Marysvale, Utah, and the most prominent mineral in the White Signal, New Mexico, district, at Mt. Painter, South Australia, and in the numerous low-grade secondary occurrences in the Mojave Desert and at other localities in southern California and Nevada. In addition, it frequently occurs as thin stains on fracture surfaces in granite and pegmatites in the Appalachian region of the eastern United States from Stone Mountain in Georgia to New England. The associated non-uranium minerals are the same as for torbernite, except that the copper minerals may be absent.

Uranophane (CaO*2UO3*2SiO2*6H2O; 65 percent U308 Uranophane is a hydrated calcium uranium silicate containing silica in place of the phosphate of autunite. It is slightly lighter in color and somewhat heavier than autunite (specific gravity 3.85) and has a different crystalline form; it may occur as stains or coatings without apparent crystal form or as finely flbrous or radiating crystal aggregates.

The origin and occurrence of uranophane are very similar to autunite and torbernite. At least two of these three minerals are almost always found together, in proportions varying with availability of copper and phosphorus, uranophane becoming predominant where these two elements are scarce or absent. Although it has as broad a geographic occurrence as the other two, uranophane, with a few exceptions, is usually present in smaller quantities. It is an important constituent of the secondary deposits in limestone near Grants, New Mexico, where it earned its reputation as an ore mineral, and in recently discovered deposits in sandstone in southern Carbon County, Wyoming. It is also the most common secondary uranium mineral found in the noncommercial deposits in granite and pegmatites in the eastern United States. Its most noted occurrences of this type are at Stone Mountain, Georgia (granite), and at the Ruggles mine at Grafton, New Hampshire (pegmatite).

Schroeckingerite [NaCa3 (UO2) (CO3)3(SO4)F*1OH20; 30 percent U308]. Schroeckingerite is a complex hydrated sulfate, carbonate, and fluoride of calcium, sodium, and uranium. It has a yellow to greenish-yellow color with a pearly luster, a bright yellow-green fluorescence, and a paler yellow or greenish yellow streak. It is very soft (less than 1 on the hardness scale)1, easily water soluble, and is the lightest of the uranium minerals (specific gravity, 2.5). It occurs as globular coatings on rock fracture surfaces or as small rounded masses composed of aggregates of flaky crystals distributed through soft rocks or soil.

Schroeckingerite is the least important of the uranium ore minerals and barely qualifies as such. It is a significant constituent of the secondary ores at Marysvale, Utah, and probably occurs in small amounts in the oxidized zones of most of the important primary deposits. The only known occurrence in which schroeckingerite is the principal mineral is at Lost Creek near Wamsutter, Wyoming. It occurs there as small pellets distributed through clay beds at or near the ground surface over a considerable area to form a low grade uranium deposit that is presently submarginal. In this type of deposit there are no significant associated minerals.

 

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معدن اليورانينيت 

 

Chemical Formula: UO2 , Uranium Oxide

  • Class: Oxides and Hydroxides
  • Uses: a major ore of uranium and radium, a source of helium and as a mineral specimen 

Uraninite is a highly radioactive and interesting mineral. It is the chief ore of uranium and radium, which is found in trace amounts. Helium was first discovered on the earth in samples of uraninite. Radium and helium are found in uraninite because they are the principle products of uranium's decay process. Weathered or otherwise altered uraninite produces some wonderful by-products such as the beautiful uranyl phosphate minerals like autunite and torbernite as well as uranyl silicates like sklodoskite andcuprosklodowskite. The structure is analogous to the structure of fluorite, CaF2. The structure of fluorite is highly symmetrical and forms isometric crystals such as cubes and octahedrons. Flourite also has four directions of perfect cleavage that produces octahedrons. However, in uraninite, crystals are rare and the cleavage is not usually observable.

A variety of uraninite is called pitchblende which is a combination of mostly uraninite and some other minerals. It is generally softer and less dense and usually botyroidal or earthy. Remember, this is a highly radioactive mineral and should be stored away from other minerals that are affected by radioactivity and human exposure should definitely be limited.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Color is black to steel black with tints of brown.
  • Luster is submetallic to pitchy and dull.
  • Transparency crystals are opaque.
  • Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m
  • Crystal Habit is typically massive botryoidal, earthy, lamellar and reniform aggregates. Well-formed individual cubic and octahedral crystals are rare.
  • Cleavage is poor in four directions (octahedral), and is rarely seen.
  • Fracture is conchoidal.
  • Hardness is 5 - 6
  • Specific Gravity is near 10 when pure but often massive specimens are closer to 7 (heavy even for metallic minerals)
  • Streak is brownish black.
  • Associated Minerals include cassiteritepyritenative silverautuniteuranophaneuranocircitetorbernitemeta-torberniteand other uranium minerals.
  • Other Characteristics: highly radioactive!
  • Notable Occurences include Bergen, Germany; Autun, France; Cornwall, England; Mitchell Co., North Carolina and Mt. Spokane, Washington, USA; Zaire; wilberforce and Great Bear Lake, Canada; Portugal and France.
  • Best Field Indicators are luster, color, radioactivity and streak.

Ref:.http://www.google.com.eg/imgres?imgurl=http://www.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/sklodows/sklodows.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/sklodows/sklodows.htm&h=360&w=480&sz=56&tbnid=tyCfHvioweoQfM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=129&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dphotos%2Bof%2Buranium%2Bminerals&zoom=1&q=photos+of+uranium+minerals&usg=__d9rdLHYPa5m1ZN0lGVW0xKvNYHg=&sa=X&ei=nsfXTMamH4-V4Aac-6nvBw&ved=0CAsQ9QEwAA

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نشرت فى 9 نوفمبر 2010 بواسطة absalman

 General

 Section 6 of the Nuclear Energy Act (YEL 990/ 1987) stipulates hat the use of nuclear energy must be safe; it shall not cause injury to people, or damage to the environment or property. In the siting of a nuclear power plant, the aim is to protect the plant against external threats as well as to minimise any environmental detrimen its and threats that might arise from it.

Other factors to be considered include: impact on land use, socio-economic impacts, traffic arrangements, reliable electric power transfer to the national grid and specific factors relating to the security of supply of electric power. Prior to the licensing procedure proper, the  environmental effects of the nuclear power plant project are studied and evaluated by environmental impact assessment (EIA). The EIA procedure falls under the Act on Environmental Impact Assessment Procedure (EIA) (468/1994) and the Decree on EIA (268/1999). In addition, Finland’s neighbouring countries shall be heard where deemed necessary by virtue of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context [1]. The Nuclear Energy Act prescribes that there must be a decision in principle of the Council of State, approved by Parliament, stating that the nuclear power plant project is in the overall good of society. An application for the decision in principle is submitted to the Council of State; the Ministry of Trade and Industry submits it to the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for a preliminary safety evaluation and requests statements from the Ministry of the Environment, the municipal council of the candidate municipality and its neighbouring municipalities.

The Nuclear Energy Decree (YEA 161/1998) stipulates that an environmental impact assessment report drawn up as a result of the EIA procedure shall be appended to the application for the decision in principle. The Council of State can consider a positive decision in principle only in case the candidate municipality has issued a statement in favour of the facility’s construction.Detailed licensing requirements applicable to the construction and operation of nuclear power plants are stipulated in the Nuclear Energy Act and Decree. The granting of a licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act requires that the project and its environmental impacts are reported to the Commission of the European Communities, not later than six months prior to the granting of the licence, as required in article 37 of EURATOM Treaty and in Commission Recommendation 99/829/Euratom [2], which supplements the Treaty.

The Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) and Decree (895/1999) prescribe planning pertaining to land use and construction. Regional plans and local master plans are, by nature, far-reaching, general land use plans. Detailed plans are drawn up for the detailed arrangement, construction and development of land use at local level.

Construction is not allowed on shore zones belonging to the coastal area of a sea or of a water system unless the area is covered by a detailed plan (a detailed shore plan) or by a specific local master plan. When deciding about a land use plan and a construction permit the authorities consider the special requirements pertaining to construction work on the nuclear power plant site and in its surroundings. Section 58 of the Nuclear Energy Act decrees that before a town plan 1 or building plan1  is drawn up for the area intended for the site of a nuclear facility, and prior to the approval of such a plan where a site is reserved for the construction of a nuclear facility, a statement must be obtained from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. In addition to the above, the environmental permit procedure prescribed in the Environmental Permit Procedures Act (731/1991) applies to the construction and operation of nuclear power 1 The terms “town plan” and “building plan” have been replaced with a “detailed plan” by virtue of the Land Use and plants. Rescue plans with provision for nuclear power plant accidents are dealt with in the Act on Rescue Services (561/1999) and the Decree on Rescue Services (857/1999) as well as in the Ministry of the Interior Order 1/97 [3] and the associated Guideline A:57 [4].

Requirements applicable to the limitation of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants are presented in chapter 3 of the Council of State Decision (VNP 395/1991) on the general regulations for the safety of nuclear power plants. Section 20 of the Decision, for its part, requires that the most important nuclear power plant safety functions shall remain operable in spite of any natural phenomena estimated possible on site or other events external to the plant. Supplementary guidelines pertaining to safety functions can be found in Guides YVL 2.6 and YVL 2.8.

Guide YVL 2.6 concerns the effects of seismic events and how they should be considered in the structural concepts of nuclear power plants. Guide YVL 2.8 deals with probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for nuclear power plants. STUK Guides YVL 7.1–7.11 and YVL 7.18 deal with onsite and offsite radiation safety and with licensees’ emergency response plans. This guide sets forth requirements for safety of the population and the environment in nuclear power plant siting. It also sets out the general basis for procedures employed by other competent authorities when they issue regulations or grant licences. On request STUK issues casespecific statements about matters relating to planning and about other matters relating to land use in the environment of nuclear power plants. Alternative candidate plant sites may be simultaneously examined during the EIA process and in the application for a decision in principle. In accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act, applications for a construction licence and an operating licence may only concern one plant site.

 

 

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الاندماج النووي وطاقة المستقبل

 

عندما يتناول العلماء مشكلة الشح المتواصل في الطاقة، فإنهم يصلون عادة إلى النتيجة التي تؤكد أن الحل الأمثل يكمن في ابتداع التقنيات المعقدة، التي تضمن تحقيق تفاعل الاندماج النووي المضبوط، أو الذي يمكن التحكم فيه تماماً دون أن يسبب أية أخطار على البيئة أو على البشر ذاتهم.

ويبدو الآن أن العلماء عازمون على بلوغ هذا الهدف، الذي يمكنه أن يجنب الأرض مشاكل التلوث، وأن يؤمن للبشرية طاقة نظيفة مستدامة إلى الأبد.

ويكمن الدافع الأساسي وراء سعي المعاهد والمؤسسات البحثية العلمية، في النظرية التي تفيد أن مصادر الطاقة التقليدية في طريقها إلى النضوب السريع بسبب الاستهلاك المفرط من الإنسان. 

ويقول تقرير حديث صادر عن وكالة الطاقة الدولية أن استهلاك العالم من الطاقة في عام 2030 سوف يرتفع بمعدل 71% عما هو عليه الآن. وسوف يكون لمشكلة نقص مصادر الطاقة تأثيراتها السياسية والاجتماعية على البشر، وسوف تتأثر بهذه الأزمة كل قطاعات النشاطات البشرية دون استثناء، كالتجارة والنقل والزراعة وإنتاج المواد الغذائية والصحة والاتصالات، وكانت هذه الحقائق المخيفة كافية لدفع مراكز البحوث إلى العمل السريع لاستقاء الحل من خلال تطوير تفاعل الاندماج النووي، كالذي يحدث على سطح الشمس وبقية النجوم المشعة.

ويمكن تلخيص مفهوم تفاعل الاندماج النووي Nuclear Fusion Reaction في اندماج نوى نظائر الهيدروجين (البروتونيوم والديتريوم والتريتيوم) تحت درجة حرارة بالغة الارتفاع لإنتاج الهليوم والطاقة الهائلة، التي تفوق تلك التي تتحرر من الانشطار النووي بآلاف المرات. وهذه الطاقة الهائلة كافية لصهر مادة النجوم كلها وتبخيرها. وتفاعل الاندماج النووي لا يحرر نفايات نووية ضارة على الإطلاق، بخلاف تفاعل الانشطار النووي في محطات الطاقة النووية، إذ تشكل النفايات النووية خطراً دائماً لا يمكن التخلص منه على الإطلاق.

ولم يعد البحث في تسخير طاقة الاندماج النووي لخدمة البشر مجرد أقوال للاستهلاك الإعلامي، بل أصبحت هدفاً أساسياً في منظومة الاتحاد الأوربي، التي رصدت مؤخراً نحو 5,13 مليار دولار لتطوير هذه البحوث على المدى القريب والمتوسط. وانطلق العمل بالفعل في هذا المشروع الطموح، الذي اتخذ من بلدة "كادارش" الفرنسية مقراً له. 
ويجري العمل الآن على قدم وساق لبناء ما يسمى (المفاعل النووي الحراري التجريبي الأوربي والعالمي ITER)، الذي سيتكفل بتخليق نظائر الهيدروجين باستخدام المجالات المغناطيسية البالغة القوة، واستخدامها بعد ذلك في إنتاج كميات هائلة من الطاقة، التي يمكن التحكم بها، وهذا المفاعل يشبه نجماً صغيراً جداً، لكنه قادر على إنتاج ما يكفي العالم كله من الطاقة النظيفة والمستدامة.

 

 

 

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  AN INTEGRATED PACKAGE FOR MINE

MANAGEMENT, ORE RESERVE ESTIMATION

AND ORE BLENDING OPERATION

Mostafa E. Mostafa  Nuclear Materials Authority,P.O. Box 530, Maadi,Cairo, Egypte-mail Mostafamem@hotmail.com 

 

 ABSTRACT

The present package includes a rich set of integrated modules for managing mine data like borehole location, down hole metric samples and assays. Checklists are prepared for selected boreholes and intermediate files are used for constructing semivariograms and contour maps and for visualizing the ore body, surface topography, overburden and chemical assays.

At a selected block size, kriging and reserve estimation of the ore are conducted in addition to the cumulative and grade/tonnage/cut off curves. For the sake of completeness, the estimation of deposits by triangle as one of the classical method is provided.

The blending operation aims to mix ores collected from different mine faces so that the final mixture assays fulfill some metallurgical constraints. Linear Programming is applied for solving such problems. The optimal solution (if present) is that which minimizes the objective function (cost of ore extraction) under the given constraints. The package is illustrated through a hypothetical ore deposit simulated under controlled condition, therefore, it can be used for optimizing study as well as educational purposes.

 

 

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 CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION .......................................... 7

 Planning for uranium exploration ........................ 9

Uranium: a strategic commodity?

A general discussion ........................................ 11

 Uranium exploration planning and strategy ........ 15

Discussion ...................................................... 26

Contractual arrangements ................................ 31

E. Müller-Kahle

Discussion ...................................................... 45

II. THE ROLE OF NATIONAL GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS ..................................................... 49

The Geological Survey's contribution to uranium exploration in Canada - a commentary ............. 51

A.G. Darnley

Discussion ..................................................... 73

The role of the Geological Survey Department in national mineral development - the Zambian example ......................................................... 77

N.J. Money

Discussion ..................................................... 86

III. THE ROLE OF OUTSIDE INTERESTS ................................................. 89

The role of outside interests ........................... 91

H.D. Fuchs

Discussion ..................................................... 97

Attracting foreign companies   (Summary) ... ...103

  J. Bourrel

 Discussion .................................................. 106

IV. THE ROLE OF STATE EXPLORATION ORGANIZATIONS ........................................ 109

The role of Government and Government organizations in uranium exploration planning and practice in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ...... Ill

M.B. Vlasov, L.G. Podolyako

Discussion ................................................... 118

Uranium exploration in India - rspective and

 strategy (Abstract)  ..................................... 121

  S.C. Verma, J.C. Nagabhushana, K.K. Sinha,Discussion .......................................... 122

R.V. Viswanath, A.C. Saraswat 

V. CONCLUSIONS ...................................... 125

List of Participants ........................................ 131

A.Y. Smith, M. Tauchid

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 The Use of Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry by M.I.M. Exploration—A Case Study From the Mount Isa Inlier, North West Queensland, Australia

Jayawardhana, P.M.[1],and Sheard, S.N.[1]

1. M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd.

 ABSTRACT  

This paper describes how airborne radiometrics has been used by M.I.M. Exploration Pty. Ltd. (MIMEX) to aid mineral exploration. The case study for this paper focuses on the Mount Isa airborne survey undertaken from 1990–92. During this survey both radiometrics and magnetics were recorded over 639 170 line kilometres. Due to the perceived value of the radiometric data, stringent calibration procedures, including the creation of a test range, were adopted. In addition to the newly flown areas, agreements were entered into to acquire existing data (76 760 line kilometres) from other companies. These were reprocessed and stitched in to give an overall ‘seamless join’ to images. The total area covered by the Mount Isa airborne survey was 1 513 000 km 2. Over the last five years MIMEX has undertaken a number of projects and generated a number of products to maximise the in-house use of radiometrics for mineral exploration. This paper highlights these products, techniques, and results based on radiometric signatures of major mines in the Mount Isa Inlier; radioelement contour maps; geomagnetic/radiometric interpretation maps; lithological mapping; regolith mapping; geochemical sampling; and spatial modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Due to the recent introduction of GIS technology and better techniques for handling MIMEX’s high quality digital data, there has been a revived interest in making more use of image data sets. The integration of raster and vector data sets for both spectral and spatial modelling has highlighted the vast potential that lies ahead.

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نشرت فى 15 أكتوبر 2010 بواسطة absalman

* يشتمل هذا الملف علي صفات الأمان الخاصة باختيار المحطات النووية

* الملف محمل بالكامل ضمن هذا الموقع وهو للاستخدام غير التجاري

*No for commercial use

 

Safety criteria for siting a

nuclear power plant

 S T U K • S Ä T E I L Y T U R V A K E S K U S • S T R Å L S Ä K E R H E T S C E N T R A L E N 

R A D I A T I O N  A N D  N U C L E A R  S A F E T Y  A U T H O R I T Y

 

Contents:

1 General 3

2 Plant site and surroundings 4

3 Safety factors affecting site selection 5

3.1 External events affecting safety 5

3.2 Radioactive releases 5

4 Regulatory control by the Radiation and Nuclear

Safety Authority 6

4.1 EIA procedure 6

4.2 Decision in principle 6

4.3 Construction licence and operating licence 6

5 References 7

 

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نشرت فى 14 أكتوبر 2010 بواسطة absalman

* هذا الملف يمثل عرض عن اختيار مواقع المفاعلات النووية بالصين

* هذا الملف للاستخدام الغير تجاري

* For non commercial uses

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نشرت فى 14 أكتوبر 2010 بواسطة absalman

* يحتوي هذا الملف علي العديد من البحوث الخاصة باستكشاف وخامات اليورنيوم اللازمة لدورة الوقود النووي

* This is for non commercial uses

CONTENTS

SUMMARY  ..................................................1

 

 

INAUGURAL SESSION

Opening remarks .........................................9

Y.A. Sokolov

Activities in front-end of uranium fuel cycle in IAEA............................................................11

C. Ganguly

Keynote address: The Nuclear renaissance — Opportunities and challenges..................................................19

G.W. Grandey

TOPIC 1: URANIUM SUPPLY AND DEMAND

Worldwide uranium resources and production capacity — the future of the industry....,,,,,,............................................27

J.M. McMurray

The future of uranium: Filling the gap .......36

F.M. Killar

Recent activities of the joint Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Uranium Group .40

R.E. Vance, R.R. Price, F. Barthel

Emerging trend of uranium mining: The Indian scenario .....................................................47

R. Gupta, A.K. Sarangi

The recent progress of uranium exploration in China ..........................................................57

Y. Chen

Changing role of secondary supply in the global uranium market..........................................................63

J.C. Cornell

Limitations to progress in developing uranium resources......................................................70

W. Mays

Closing the cycle: Life-cycle impact assessment of materials used in nuclear energy systems.........................................................76

W.E. Falck

Risk, legitimacy and governance: CSR, stakeholder dialogue and

indicator systems through the life cycle of uranium..........................................................84

A. Chamaret, M. O’Connor

Uranium mine project licensing: Cameco’s current experience......................................................96

J. Jarrell, G. White

Analysis of uranium world resources and ways of their extension .....................................................103

V.V. Shatalov, A.V. Takhanov, V.A. Boldyrev, O.I. Knyazev

TOPIC 2: URANIUM GEOLOGY AND DEPOSITS

Millennium deposit – basement-hosted derivative of the unconformity uranium model.............................................................111

C. Roy, J. Halaburda, D. Thomas, D. Hirsekorn

Ion microprobe CAMECA IMS-3fREE and isotopic U-Pb analyses of uranium oxide .............................................................122

J. Bonhoure, P. Kister, M. Cuney, E. Deloule

Aluminium Phosphate Sulfate minerals (APS): Some markers of paleoconditions

in unconformity related uranium deposits .....134

S. Gaboreau, P. Vieillard, D. Beaufort, P. Patrier, P. Kister

Geochemical modelling for the unconformity-related uranium mineralization

A case study from Baskati area, Madhya Pradesh, India................................................................141

V. P. Saxena, R.M. Sinha, O.P. Yadav, R.V.S. Sesha Rao

Sandstone type, uranium deposits in NW China............................................................152

W. Zhou, S. Liu, J. Wu, Z. Wang

Australia’s uranium: Linking uranium endowment to crustal evolution........................................................160

I. Lambert, S. Jaireth, A. McKay, Y. Miezitis

1

 

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(Developments in Uranium Solution Mining in Australia )

* الورقة تحتوي علي التطورات التي أجريت علي ماجم محاليل اليورانيوم في استراليا ISL .

*الورقة محملة بالكامل ضمن هذا المقال.

* Not for commercial use

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Australian Uranium Resources and Production in a World Context

BOB CLEARYChief Executive, Energy Resources of Australia Ltd,Ground Floor, 120 Christie Street, St Leonards, Sydney NSW 2065 

 

SUMMARY.

 The aim of the paper is to discuss Australian uranium resources and production from the perspective of ERA, the world's third-largest uranium producer, and one of only three producing uranium mining companies in Australia. ERA is a long-term supplier of uranium concentrates for the nuclear power generation industry overseas, a key part of clean global energy supply. ERA's Ranger plant was designed to produce 3,000t U3Og/yr, with expansion of the plant in the early 90s to a 5,700t U3O8/yr capacity. Australia continues to have the worlds' largest reserves of uranium recoverable at costs of US$40 kg or less, but lags behind Canada in primary production of uranium. This paper discusses some of the reasons for the gap between resources and production, with examples from the company's own experience. Political, social and environmental factors have played a big role in the development of the uranium industry - ERA has been in the forefront of these issues as it pursues sustainable development practices.

 

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دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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 Metallogenic Condition and Regularity of Interlayered Oxidation Zone-type Sandstone Uranium Deposit in Suthwestern Part of Turpan-Hami Basin, Northwestern China

 

(Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, 100029)

ABSTRACT

Regional geological surveying and drilling evaluation in recent years show that there are very large potential resources of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. According to the characteristics of tectonic evolution and sedimentary cover of the basin, the evolution stages and types of the basin are divided, and the favorable development stages for the ore-bearing formation and the formation of uranium deposits in the evolution process are identified. The metallogenic conditions of uranium deposits are deeply discussed from four aspects: basic tectonics, paleoclimate evolution, hydrogeology and uranium source of the region. All these have laid an important foundation for accurate prediction and evaluation of uranium resources in this region. The research indicates that the uranium metallogeny is a process of long-term, multi-stage and pulsation. The authors try to ascertain the role of organic matter in concentrating uranium .The organic matter is of humic type in sandstone host-rock in the studied area, whose original mother material mainly belongs to terrestrial high plant. The maturity of the organic matter is very low, being in low-grade stage of thermal evolution. Correlation analysis and separation experiments show that uranium concentration is closely related with the organic matter, and the organic matter in uranium ore is mainly in the form of humic acid adsorption and humate. For this  leason the total organic carbon content is often increased in the geochemical redox zone in epigenetic sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is suggested that the north of China is of great potential for sandstone-type uranium resources.

XIANG Weidong CHEN Zhaobo CHEN Zuyi YIN Jinshuang
(In Chinese)

 

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دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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SUMMARY

This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cogniscance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materialis e.

absalman

دكتور / عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان جيولوجي استشاري، مصر salmanab2012@yahoo.com

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أهمية البرامج النووية للدول العربية

* المقال محمل بالكامل ضمن جريدة اقتصاد الغد، العدد الثامن عشر بتاريخ الأحد  24 أغسطس 2008

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دخول دول جديدة النادي النووي

الملف محمل بالكامل ضمن الموقع

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دكتور: عبدالعاطي بدر سالمان

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